Citation: PD-L1/PD-1 inhibitors and beyond

A peer-reviewed article that appeared in the Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Research by David Segarnick, PhD and Heather Chien, M.S., explores the current and future landscape of immunotherapy compounds that use the body’s own immune system to fight cancer.

Literature data from Medmeme’s database is cited intables throughout, to illustrate the Share of Scientific Voice among PD1 / PD-L1 inhibitors as well as combination therapies that are currently experiencing a wave of excitement and clinical trials within the industry.

The below is printed with the authors’ permission.

PD-L1/PD-1 Inhibitors and Beyond: The Evolving Role of Checkpoint Inhibitors and Biomarkers in Cancer Immunotherapy

David J Segarnick ¹* and Heather Chien ²

Mini Review J of Pharmacol & Clin Res

Volume 2 Issue 1 – December 2016 DOI: 10.19080/JPCR.2017.02.555577

Copyright © All rights are reserved by David J Segarnick

  1. Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Neuroscience, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School/Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, USA
  2. Research Associate, MedEvoke (a Medisys Health Communications company), USA

Submission: December 19, 2016; Published: January 19, 2017

*Corresponding author: David J Segarnick, PhD, Chief Medical Officer, MedEvoke

The past five years have witnessed significant advances in cancer immunotherapeutics, characterized by breakthroughs in response not seen previously with standard chemotherapy. Researchers have studied immunotherapy as potential cancer treatment for decades, but positive large scale clinical trial outcomes have been achieved only recently. When Science magazine declared cancer immunotherapy its 2013 “Breakthrough of the Year,” the promise of dramatic therapeutic responses triggered rapid growth in the pace of foundational research, clinical testing, and commercialization of new molecules [1]. Four immunotherapeutic drugs are furthest along in clinical development at this time. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab inhibit PD-1 directly, whereas atezolizumab (MPDL3280A) and MEDI4736 inhibit PD-L1. PD-L1, or programmed death ligand-1, is an inhibitory immune checkpoint molecule found on T cells that binds the PD-1 receptor to reduce cytokine production and suppress T cell proliferation [2]. Since PD-L1 is often overexpressed in solid tumors, inhibition of the PD-1 pathway may be a viable option to target this mechanism of immune evasion. Tables 1 & 2 provide an overview of the clinical activity of these drugs when used as single agents and in combination [3]. These drugs are also being extensively studied in comparison trials versus chemotherapy as well as in combination trials with other systemic and targeted therapies and other immunotherapies.  Read More….